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Spirochetes are gram-negative, motile, spiral bacteria, from 3 to 500 microns (1 m = 0.001 mm) long. Spirochetes are unique in that they have endocellular flagella (axial fibrils, or axial filaments).

The spirochete Borrelia Burgdorferi s.l., in a broader sense is responsible for Lyme disease.

Borrelia Burgdorferi is a very sensitive pathogen. Its preferred ambient temperature is 35°C, and requires a special culture medium, different from those used for cultivating other bacteria.

Without DualDur reagent, the disintegration of borrelia starts almost immediately in fresh blood.