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Literature

Our scientific team has reviewed over 5,000 scientific articles during the past 30 years. It is impossible to show all the facts and citations behind our accumulated knowledge. We have gathered a shortlist of the most important publications to support statements made on this website.

  1. Poor Positive Predictive Value of Lyme Disease Serologic Testing in an Area of Low Disease Incidence, (Lantos PM, Branda JA, Boggan JC, Chudgar SM, Wilson EA, Ruffin F, Fowler V, Auwaerter PG, Nigrovic LE), Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Jul 20. pii: civ584.
  2. Laboratory diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis is influenced by the test used: comparison of two ELISAs, immunoblot and CXCL13 testing (Wutte N, Archelos J, Crowe BA, Zenz W, Daghofer E, Fazekas F, Aberer E), J Neurol Sci. 2014 Dec 15;347(1-2):96-103. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2014.09.027.
  3. A Concise Critical Analysis of Serologic Testing for the Diagnosis of Lyme Disease, (Roberta L. DeBiasi), Curr Infect Dis Rep (2014) 16:450
  4. “Presently, the diagnosis of early Lyme disease is based on exposure and typical clinical findings. Although B. burgdorferi can be cultured from erythema migrans skin lesions, blood, joint fluid, and CSF, few laboratories stock the special medium required. The spirochetes are seldom detected on any kind of direct microscopic examination. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures able to detect B. burgdorferi–specific DNA sequences in body fluids have been developed but are expensive and not standardized for routine use.
    With culture generally unavailable, the diagnosis in later stages of disease usually rests on the demonstration of circulating antibodies to B. burgdorferi. Despite considerable progress these tests still lack the sensitivity and specificity to be considered more than supportive of a clinical diagnosis. The current recommendation is to first perform a sensitive screening test (enzyme immunoassay or fluorescent antibody) followed by a more specific Western blot. Even with this two-step approach, patients in the early stages may be seronegative and cross-reactive antigens may cause false-positive results.” (Ryan KJ; Ray CG, ed. (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 434–37)

Please also see the interview with Dr. Bózsik, Lyme specialist, the inventor of DualDur. Click here